Staff Training

It is important for the welfare and productivity of pigs that they have positive human contact. This makes them easier to move if they have been previously handled and moved, so it is critical to ensure that those in charge of handling the animals have a proper understanding of behavioural principles such that handling the animals creates the least possible amount of stress. Farm staff who is in contact with the animals should take the appropriate training on the various aspects of animal welfare, such as handling methods and euthanasia. They should also recognize that their attitudes and their behaviour impact the welfare of the animals

The relationships that the producer has with his or her sows change when the animals are being raised in groups. In the case of free-access stalls, or trough or floor feeding, this relationship remains limited because the herd can be supervised from the service corridors, at feeding time, without necessarily entering the pens.19 When the ESF system is used, however, this relationship becomes a success factor because interaction is necessary for the system to function properly. The producer is forced to enter the group every day to monitor the herd and identify problem sows, and perhaps show and provide support to the gilts as they learn to get comfortable with how the system operates.

Dr J. Brown and cooperator G. Geene discussing pen layout

Grouping sows involves changes in how the animals are handled and, accordingly, in how work is scheduled. When sows are grouped (except in the case of free-access stalls), the producer no longer has individual access to each gestating sow. Individual access to a locked-in sow is limited to the weaning period up until the time they are placed in a group and during farrowing. With all these changes regarding what work needs to be done and how it is organized, it is easy to see that group management can be a headache for the producer. However, most producers felt that the practice of group management shortened the time they needed to spend dealing with gestating sows and simplified their work, or at least made it more pleasant.

The transition to group housing appears to reduce the amount of work time spent on the part of the producer; there is a difference of about 3 fewer hours/sow/year when swine are group- managed, given an equivalent-sized herd.

However, producers said that they changed the way they manage their sows when they were placed in groups. They now have greater contact with their animals, but that changed the way they monitor and supervise them. Observing them requires more time for some, whereas other producers stated that group management makes observing the animals easier. However, on a daily basis, the arrangement is seen by the producers as something that simplifies their work. This gain in efficiency is tied in part to the simplification of certain tasks. Operations where the sows are housed in free-access stalls saw the least amount of change in work procedures because the sows can be temporarily locked in.